La Monnaie / De Munt La Monnaie
De Munt
Behind the scenes
In the wings of the opera


  • A l’italienne painting technique

    A method that consists of painting on canvases stretched on the ground using long brushes. Not to be confused with the à l’allemande technique, which involves suspending the canvases.   
  • Artistic team

    The director does not work alone, but is assisted by a team made up of a set designer, a costume designer, and sometimes a lighting designer, a video maker, etc. That team collaborates with La Monnaie’s own teams throughout the creation of a production.  
  • Banda

    A musical ensemble that plays music onstage (or backstage) that is heard by the characters onstage.   
  • Bar (fly bar, stage pulley bar)

    A horizontal metal bar located above the stage from which parts of the set, curtains, or lights are suspended.  
  • Bowings

    They indicate, for the stringed instruments, how to move the bow on the strings. Symbols indicate to the musician whether to “push” or “pull”. The position of the bow and the length of the bow stroke are also indicated.   
  • Concertmaster

    She or he is the leader of the first violin section. This musician is responsible for playing any solos and is also the representative of the orchestra and responsible for communicating with the conductor.
  • Cour and Jardin (stage right and stage left)

    From the auditorium, cour is the right of the stage and jardin is the left. These terms enable all the artists and technicians to get into position on the left or on the right for movements, exits, and entrances. They were adopted in the eighteenth century at the Théâtre des Tuileries in Paris. The palace court was located to the right of the stage and the gardens to the left.  
  • Cue sheet

    A list, including timings, of all onstage changes, changes in lighting and scenery, and singers’ entrances. It is compiled by the stage managers based on the score.  
  • Director

    Responsible for the staging, the director provides the artistic vision for an opera or play and coordinates all the elements that make up the show: acting, scenery, lighting, rhythm, etc. 
  • Dynamics

    Variations in the intensity of a musical note or phrase (from piano, quiet to forte- loud, and the degrees of variation mezzo pianofortissimo, etc.)  
  • Final dress rehearsal

    The last stage rehearsal with the orchestra before the premiere, played without interruption.
  • Fly towers (flies)

    The top part of the grid, from which technicians called fly operators manoeuvre parts of the sets up and down.  
  • Full score

    The conductor’s score, in which all the parts for all instruments are detailed.    
  • Italian rehearsal

    Music rehearsal with orchestra but without staging.
  • Manoeuvre

    Any action performed by the stage machinery to lift the curtain or carry out a scene change, seen or unseen. 
  • Orchestra pit

    Situated in front of and below the stage, this is where the orchestra is located during the performance of an opera. 
  • Patina

    A painting technique for simulating textures. 
  • Philippe Boesmans

    Belgian composer.
  • Piano dress rehearsal

    Dress rehearsal without the orchestra.
  • Piano tech

    Onstage rehearsal with piano. 
  • Pre-dress rehearsal

    Stage rehearsal with the orchestra, played without interruption.
  • Premiere

    The first public performance of an opera
  • Publisher

    He handles the production, exploitation, and distribution of the scores, as well as managing all activities related to the exploitation of the intellectual property rights (copyright) of the works. Renting a score from a publisher ensures that you will have a score that is as close to the original text as possible, with no errors, and that is as legible as possible. A score can evolve depending on new interpretations and discoveries, which is why some (even the best-known operas by Verdi and Mozart) are frequently republished.  
  • Rapid scene change

    A scene change that is carried out very quickly.
  • Revival

    A production that has already been performed and is revived several years later.  
  • Revolve

    Revolving platform used to turn the sets. 
  • Scene docks

    Located on either side of the stage and invisible to the audience, this is where the stage managers and prop technicians operate, and where the singers are positioned before their entrances onstage. Parts of the sets can also be stored there.  
  • Scenic design

    The art and study of the construction of scenery for the stage (closely related to the staging).   
  • Scenic designer

    An artist specialising in the creation of scenery, responsible for the scenic design.  
  • Stage manager

    Person who manages the technical organisation of a show and acts as a link between the artistic team and the technical team.  
  • Stage-orchestra rehearsal

    Stage rehearsal with staging and the orchestra